Thursday, December 5, 2019

Political Reformers US History

Question: 1. Who were the key political reformers of the 1880s-1890s? 2. What types of reforms did they want? 3. Who are the political reformers of the first two decades of the 20th century? 4. What sort of reforms did they want? Answer: 1:- The key political reformers of 1880s-1890s also known as Gilded Era who tried hard to end the dishonestly and corruption of the government and bring equality in the nation were Fredrick Winslow Taylor, Herbert Spencer William, Grahan Sumner, John D. Rockfeller, and Andrew Carnegie.[1] 2:- In the Gilded Era the growth of the industrialization was remarkable, and people earned a lot of wealth and prosperity, but this prosperity and wealth were not shared with the workers and the farmers who worked hard for long hours in unfavorable conditions. The politicians also were mostly corrupt and ineffective. Therefore, most of the American citizens wanted political and social reforms, but most of them strongly disagreed on what type of reforms they want. There were three reforms occurred in this era:- McKinley Tariff Act that increased the taxes and duties on imports. Sherman Silver Purchase Act that includes the purchase of 4, 500, 00 oz. Of silver each month and to equal the amount of purchase paper money was issued. Sherman Antitrust Act to prevent monopolies.[2] 3:- The key political reformers who fought hard to bring positive changes in the US in the Progressive Era that is the first two decades of the 20th-century were Presidents Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, and Woodrow Wilson.[3] 4: - The reforms wanted by the reformers of the 20th-century was like:- Improvement of the efficiency, honesty and responsiveness of the government Powerful regulation for the protection of small businesses, workers, and consumers Improvement in the life of people in the cities Closing of dance halls, prohibition of gambling The power to tax the income of the citizens The permission of providing direct election of the senators of the US Prohibition of producing, transporting or selling of alcohol The power voting should be given to women also Prohibition of child labor.[4] 5:- The political reform movement in Gilded Era was without a specific motive and mostly in the hands of a limited people because of the corruption and dishonesty in the government at that time. The nations wealth was also accumulated between few richest and other were living in poor living conditions and with limited income. People of this era wanted social and political reforms but they were not clear what and how they can get those reforms. When the progressive era came the President Roosevelt brought fair wages and safe workplace conditions. He ended the mistreatment with the workers and brought rules and regulations in the country. People became aware of the reforms they wanted, and they demanded for it. The monopoly came to an end by the reforms that were passed in this era. Laws were framed to limit the working hours and ending child labor. All these changes were come into existence because of the change in the government and the establishment of rules and regulations in the n ation. These changes also helped in the equal distribution of wealth amongst the citizens of the nation.[5] References Broesamle, John J and Anthony Arthur.Clashes Of Will. New York: Pearson/Longman, 2005. Charap, Lawrence. "Teaching and thinking about the gilded age and progressive era in the redesigned AP US history course".J. gilded age prog. era14, no. 03 (2015): 389-399. Macleod, David I. "Food Prices, Politics, And Policy In The Progressive Era".J. gilded age prog. era8, no. 03 (2009): 365-406. Westhoff, Laura M. "Reacting to the past in the gilded age and progressive era classroom".J. gilded age prog. era14, no. 04 (2015): 580-582. [1] John J Broesamle and Anthony Arthur,Clashes Of Will(New York: Pearson/Longman, 2005). [2] Lawrence Charap, "Teaching and thinking about the gilded age and progressive era in the redesigned AP US history course",J. gilded age prog. era14, no. 03 (2015): 389-399. [3] David I. Macleod, "Food Prices, Politics, And Policy In The Progressive Era",J. gilded age prog. era8, no. 03 (2009): 365-406. [4] Laura M. Westhoff, "Reacting to the past in the gilded age and progressive era classroom",J. gilded age prog. era14, no. 04 (2015): 580-582. [5] John J Broesamle and Anthony Arthur,Clashes Of Will(New York: Pearson/Longman, 2005).

Thursday, November 28, 2019

To Earthward By Robert Frost Essays - Aesthetics, Poetic Form

To Earthward By Robert Frost English IV AP February 2000 To Earthward Robert Frost's To Earthward is an intimate lyric in which an old man reflects upon his passionate experiences with love as a youth and the lack of such experiences in his old age. Through diction, imagery and structure, the tone of the speaker changes from one of gentle nostalgia to resentment toward the ephemeral nature of love. The entire poem, which consists of eight quatrains, adheres to a structure of six syllables in the first three lines of a quatrain and four syllables in the last line. Also throughout the colloquial piece are external rhymes, which are sometimes imperfect, but are used to keep the steady rhythm. This use of diction and structure makes the poem seem more universal. The speaker's situation is one that we all will experience someday. Alliteration is for emphasize in bitter bark/ And burning clove (23-24) and stiff and sore and scarred (25). The alliteration of harsh B and blunt S sounds accentuate the speaker's discontent with the dispassionate state of his current way of life. In the first four quatrains the speaker is reminiscing about his experiences with love in his youth. He recalls how little it took to enchant him and that love at the lips was touch/ as sweet as I could bear (1-2) for in his youth love had seemed extremely intense. Vivid descriptions create a vibrant and fragrant image of his early love as a musk/ From hidden grapevine springs/ Downhill at dusk (6-8) that made him feel as though he would swirl and ache/ From sprays of honeysuckle/ That when they're gathered shake/ Dew on the knuckle (9-12). But the image of a rose petal that stings in lines 15-16 begins the speaker's diversion toward resentment. He implies that the joyful aspects of love are so intense because of the pain and tension that accompany love. Now that he is old, the speaker feels the need to live passionately before he dies. He no longer fears the pain that accompanies love because he desperately longs for the intense love he experienced as a youth. He crave(s) the stain/ Of tears, the aftermark/ Of almost too much love (21-22) because he did not appreciate the transient nature of love until too late in his life. He is left to pound on the ground (his future resting-place), resentful that his longing for love will never be as intense as the experience of love itself. Poetry and Poets

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Complete Guide Job Shadowing for High School Students

Complete Guide Job Shadowing for High School Students SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Are you thinking about future careers and wondering what different jobs are like?There are many job shadowing opportunities for high school students, and they're a great way to observe different jobs and help you decide which careers would be best for you. Read this guide to learn about job shadowing for high school students, how you can find great job shadowing opportunities, and tips for making the most of your job shadow experience. What Is Job Shadowing? Job shadowing is an experience where you spend a day or a few days observing a professional on the job.While job shadowing, you can easily learn about different jobs and help decide which careers you would enjoy the most. You can follow a doctor making her rounds in the hospital, observe a teacher conducting class, look over building plans with an architect, or something completely different, depending on who you shadow. Job shadowing is popular withstudents because it introduces them to different careers and helps them decide which jobs would be the best fit for them.Job shadowing for high school students is especially helpful because knowing which jobs you enjoy can help you decide on a major when you begin applying to colleges. What Will You Do While Job Shadowing? What you do while job shadowing depends heavily on where your shadow takes place. In general, job shadowing involves following one worker, often called a mentor, as they go about their work day. A job shadow mostly involves listening and observing, but they often give you the chance to perform some simple job duties. For example, if you shadow a doctor at a hospital, you may be able to discuss different diseases and methods of treatment, be sent to pick up x-rays, and watch doctors interact with patients, but you won't be able to do things that require special training, such as draw blood or examine a patient yourself. You will get to see what your mentor's schedule is like, how much of their time they spend on different duties, who they talk to during the day, and what knowledge and skills they use. You may focus specifically on one job or observe multiple jobs within a company.You will also usually have the chance to speak to other workers and ask them questions about their jobs and career paths. A job shadow usually lasts one day, but there are cases when they can last several days to give you a more in-depth look at a certain career or company. To set up a job shadow, you just need to find a company who is willing to host you and available when you are. This means thatthey can take place at any time of the year. However, because most people work Monday to Friday, it is often easier to schedule a job shadow during the summer when you are not in school during those days. You may also be able to find an opportunity over a weekend or on a school holiday, or you may get permission to miss a day of school to attend a job shadow. What Are the Benefits of Job Shadowing? Job shadowing has many benefits for high school students, and three of the most important are discussed below. Learn About Different Jobs Usually, the biggest benefit of job shadowing is that it lets you directly observe different jobs so you can better understand what different careers entail.Shadowing a job can help you learn if it’s really something you would enjoy. For example, you may have always dreamed of being a journalist, but shadowing one may cause you to realize that you don’t enjoy all the research and editing they have to do. On the other hand, you may find a different job much more interesting than you originally thought it would be. Job shadowing is a great opportunity for high school students because it lets them learn about different jobs in a risk-free way before they choose a major and begin to take college classes. It’s much better to learn which jobs you like and dislike now,rather than wait until after you’ve graduated college to learn that you don’t like any of the careers your major prepared you for. Network With Professionals When you job shadow, you will get the opportunity to speak with professionals in that field.Job shadowing typically involves spending the majority of your time with one person, your mentor, but almost all job shadow experiences also include interacting and speaking with other workers at the company. You can use this opportunity to ask them about their job, what they like about it, what they dislike about it, and what advice they have for a student who wants to go into that career field.Making connections with professionals can also make it easier for you to find a job or an internship in that field down the road because you have already established a relationship with people working there. If you had a great job shadow experience at a place where you'd like to work, try to nurture the relationships you created and keep in touch with the people you met. This can include sending them an e-mail every few months mentioning something you read or learned about that's relevant to their job, meeting them for coffee about once a year to discuss the career field and your goals, or applying for an internship there. There's a long period of time between high school and when you'll begin your job search in college, and keeping up with your relationships will help keep you fresh in their memory, so they are more likely to help you when you're looking for a job. Be Introduced to the Workforce Another benefit of job shadowing is that it lets you experience what having a job and being in the workforce is like.During your job shadow, you can get a better idea of what it’s like to go to work every day, interact with coworkers, and have a boss.This can be useful for students thinking about applying to their first job or internshipbecause it will give them a better idea of what to expect when they begin working. Are There Downsides to Job Shadowing? Job shadowing can provide great experiences and teach you a lot, but if you have a negative experience or a mentor, it can turn you away from a job you had previously been really interested in. If you have a bad job shadow experience, the important thing is to remember that you only spent one day at one place, and that does not represent the entire career by any means. People can have bad days, and people with the same job title can, and often do, have completely different work experiences. If this happens to you, you should try to set up another job shadow, either at a different location but for a similar job, or at the same place but with another mentor. Having a second job shadow can help you determine if it's really the career you dislike, or if it was the specific company or person you shadowed. How Can You Find Job Shadowing Opportunities? So now that you know how beneficial job shadowing for high school students can be, read on to learn how to set up your own. Check With Your School High schools often have connections with various companies who offer job shadowing.Ask your academic adviser or someone at your school’s career office for a list of organizations you can contact.If you aren’t sure where you’d like to do your job shadow, they can talk to you about your career goals and help you choose a place that will fit your interests. Contact Places Where You'd Like to Work If you have a specific place where you may like to work in the future or want to learn more about, you can also contact them directly.Call or e-mail someone from the company’s human resources department (or if they don’t have an HR department, call or e-mail the main contact line). Say that you’re a student interested in learning more about certain careers, and you’d like an opportunity to do a job shadow with someone from the company. List some reasons as to why you chose that particular company. Try Community Boards Your community center or town hall may also offer opportunities for job shadowing. Check community boards or websites for possibilities. If you see interesting companies hiring for workers or interns, you can also contact them to see if they’d be willing to let you job shadow there. Want to build the best possible college application? We can help. PrepScholar Admissions is the world's best admissions consulting service. We combine world-class admissions counselors with our data-driven, proprietary admissions strategies. We've overseen thousands of students get into their top choice schools, from state colleges to the Ivy League. We know what kinds of students colleges want to admit. We want to get you admitted to your dream schools. Learn more about PrepScholar Admissions to maximize your chance of getting in. Tips for Job Shadowing The more effort and preparation you put into your job shadow, the more you will get out of it. Follow these tips to have an informative and useful job shadowing experience. Before Your Job Shadow: Do some research on the company so that you’re prepared for when you arrive. Check the company’s website to get this information. Learn basic facts such as what work they do, how many people they employ, and when they were founded. Also, read over the company’s goals and mission statement if they have them to get a better sense of where you’ll be working. If you know who you’ll be shadowing, research their position as well so you have a better idea of what to expect when you shadow. Be prepared to discuss yourself and your career goals. If you’re not sure about your career goals, that’s fine too, just mention you’re still gathering information if you’re asked. Prepare some questions you’d like to ask while shadowing. These questions can be about the job itself, the career field, or advice you’re interested in getting. Sample questions include: What caused you to choose this job? What do you like about this job? What do you dislike about it? What makes a person successful at this job? What classes can I take to help prepare me for a job in this field? What skills are useful for this job? Make sure you know where and when your job shadow will be taking place, and confirm with someone from the company a few days beforehand. During Your Job Shadow: Know how to get to the location and allow extra time to ensure you are not late. Dress appropriately. Unless you will be getting dirty, dress similar to how you would for a job interview. Don’t wear t-shirts, shorts, or flip-flops. Bring a notepad so you can take down notes and things you learn. Keep your phone off during the job shadow and resist the urge to text or check your Facebook messages until you’re back home. Be enthusiastic and participate in each activity suggested. You want to learn as much as possible from this experience. Speak to as many people as you can and ask for their business cards if you're interested in talking with them more. Shake hands and introduce yourself to every person you meet. Remember to be respectful of people's time. While most people you meet will be happy to talk with you, remember that you are at someone's workplace and they need to work as well, so try not to take up too much of any one person's time. After Your Job Shadow: Send thank-you notes to the person or people you shadowed, and mention a few things you learned. Write up a few sentences on your job shadow experience for your own personal use. Describe what you did, what you enjoyed, what you didn’t enjoy, and what you learned. This will be useful information to have in the future when you don’t remember the details of your job shadow as clearly. Store contact information and business cards in a safe place so you can reference them if you need to contact the company again for more information, ask follow-up questions, or if you end up applying for a job there. Key FactsAbout Job Shadowing Job shadowing is a great way to observe specific jobs and help decide which careers you are most interested in. Job shadows are a great opportunity for high school students because they can help you plan your future and decide what to major in at college. During a job shadow, you will observe a typical workday at the company. Your school can help you set up a job shadow, or you can contact companies you’re interested in directly. Beforehand, research the company and career field you’ll be observing so you can ask relevant questions. During your job shadow, make the most of the experience by speaking to as many people and participating in as many activities as you can. What's Next? Thinking about getting a job in high school? Check out our guide to the 8 best jobs for teens and learn how to find yours! Considering doing an internship? Learn how to get an internship as a high schooler, the benefits and drawbacks, andhow to choose the best internship for you. Community service is also a great way to get experience and learn about different jobs. Read our guide to learn what community service is and how it can benefit you. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points?We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now:

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Applied Economics-Using SAS Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Applied Economics-Using SAS - Assignment Example These factors are not, however, explicitly correlated as poorer nations have been identified as potential future economies provided that health care expenditure is minimal. On the other hand, the consideration of education quality affects the level of economic output of the nation at hand. Hence, among the research questions that this exercise seeks to answer include â€Å"What is the relationship between education and population growth and the associated impacts? Additionally, the relationship between health expenditure and population growth provides room for analyzing the movement of resources to fund some sectors while others, which in differ in priority, are postponed. In order to understand that the economic theory provides insight into the aspect of whether related economic functions have any influence on the other. For instance, this section involves the use of Statistics Analysis Software (SAS) from which regression tests are performed to provide the desired information to respond to the research questions. By using regression analyses, the relationships between education and population, population and health, and education & health care. Alth ough the economic theory aims at solving economic dilemmas, it is also used to analyze the foreseeable dilemmas. For instance, one of the dilemmas that economic analysts have to deal with is the identification of opportunity costs when managing public funds. It is feared that situations that call for decisions that are almost equally sound, the implicit benefits may fall short of explicit benefits. Consider an economic situation in which the GDP is affected by the health expenditure. Data analyzed in this section considers population growth, education expenditure, and health expenditure of Argentina, Brazil, United States, Canada, Germany, France, India, Japan, New Zealand, and Australia as some of the major economies facing education and health expenditure issues (SchreiberWWII, 1). One among the

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Oil and Energy Industry in UAE Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Oil and Energy Industry in UAE - Essay Example m.) respectively and hence world's fifth and fourth largest respectively (Khalil 2009). UAE is OPEC's third largest oil producer and currently pumps 2.4 million b/d (Khalil). UAE projects to enhance upstream as well as downstream production capacities (Energy Information Administration 2007). Historically, oil, and recently natural gas, has contributed vitally to UAE's overall economic development and growth (UAE Federal e-Government Portal 2006). Currently, energy sector, especially oil and gas, contributes as much as 62% to UAE's overall economy (UAE Federal e-Government Portal). Essentially, Abu Dhabi holds sway over UAE's oil capacity both in overall production capabilities and proven reserves (9.2 billion barrels) (EIA). Moreover, Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (ADNOC), UAE's largest state-owned company, dominates production (EIA) and controls UAE's quota prescribed by OPEC (EIA). Notwithstanding plans to diversify economy (Abu Dhabi Economic Vision 2030 n.d.), UAE continues to rely on oil and gas as major sources for state revenues ("Non-Oil Sectors Ac... This, in fact, poses serious challenges for an economy whose performance has depended largely on international oil markets (Husain, Tazhibayeva, and Ter-Martirosyan 2008). Moreover, not only has economic performance in an oil-rich country such as UAE depended on energy sector's positive or negative shocks but fiscal policies seem to strongly correlate with oil prices as well and hence impact positively or negatively, depending on fluctuations in oil prices, non-oil production sectors (see fig. 1). [Insert Your Last Name] 3 Fig. 1. Husain, Tazhibayeva, and Ter-Martirosyan Indeed, a growing body of analyses and government reports (Boer & Turner; Abu Dhabi Economic Vision 2030 ) have repeatedly stressed significance of and implications for economic diversification in Gulf Council Countries (GCC), of which UAE is a member. The case for diversification in UAE is even more pressing given UAE's reliance on Abu Dhabi and Dubai as leading engines for country's economic growth (O'Sullivan 2007). Further, given each emirate's autonomous status according to constitution (O'Sullivan), UAE cannot enact a universal and binding economic policy unless political authority steps in. This is, again, particularly true given Abu Dhabi's and Dubai's attraction force as opposed to remaining emirates' fading allure, especially to youth. So far, Abu Dhabi and Dubai, UAE's leading economies, both have managed to maintain healthy economic growth rates according to each emirate's strategic vision. [Insert Your Last Name] 4 However, overall, UAE's leading economic sector, i.e. energy and oil, seems to project growth in oil production capacity (see fig. 2) and increasing foreign

Monday, November 18, 2019

The Negative Causes, effects and sides of Onechild law in China Research Paper

The Negative Causes, effects and sides of Onechild law in China - Research Paper Example cts Negative Population Implications Negative Economic Effects ‘Little emperor syndrome’ – kids spoilt, lack social skills Increased pressure on kids to get good qualifications, well paid jobs, provide for parents in old age Human rights issues and abuses – shouldn’t everyone have the right to have as many kids as they want? Also looking at abuses, e.g. forced sterilisation, abortions, Imbalanced gender ratio = 119.2 boys for every 100 girls – due to abortions of girl pregnancies, abandoning girl babies. Also created ‘bride shortage’ with 10% more men in population than women Current fertility decline now stands at 1.47, below replacement fertility level of 2.1 kids Rapid aging population; Currently 10.5% of population over 65 (was 7.6% 2 decades ago) Set to grow to 15% in 2015, 20% by 2025 and 35% by 2050 4-2-1 problem of supporting elderly relatives – financial problems 1.34 billion Yuan in 1990 spent on government alloca tion for birth control programmes, grew to 4.82billion Yuan by 1998, still increasing now Rural consequences of only having 1 kid - loss of income on farm, labour needed to work on farm/ in agriculture Process Style Outline Negative Effects of China’s One Child Policy Social Effects ‘little emperor syndrome’ Over reliance on children from one child families Human rights violations Effects on China’s Population Structure Gender imbalance ratio – fewer girls – boys valued more, baby girl infant mortality Fertility levels fallen below replacement levels Rapidly aging population Economic Effects Family cost/consequence of only having one child State financial and political costs of administering policy Rural populations – need more kids to help out on farm, agriculture, etc Key Underline Thesis Statement Three decades after its implementation, there is a growing concern amongst researchers and citizens that China’s One Child Policy is having negative effects on Chinese society, its economy and future population trends. It is the aim of this report to discuss the consequences of such an unprecedented policy. ‘China’s One Child Policy was introduced in 1979 by the People’s Republic of China’ (Rosenberg, 2011). It was initially designed as a temporary measure to slow population growth at the start of the Chinese economic reforms (Feng, 2005). This was because China’s population had almost doubled from 563 million in 1950, to one billion by 1980 (Rosenberg, 2010). The policy has resulted in 90% of urban and 60% of rural children having no siblings (Chen, 2000) and China now has one of the lowest fertility rates (1.47 children per couple) in the world (Feng, 2005). According to Li et al (2005), ‘China’s One Child Policy is the largest and most extreme social experiment in population growth control via government intervention in human reproduction history’. Howev er, three decades after its implementation, there is a growing concern amongst researchers and citizens as to the negative effects such a policy has had on Chinese society, its economy and future population structure. It is the aim of this report to discuss the consequences of such an unprecedented policy. There are many negative consequences of China’s One Child Policy relating to the social structure of Chinese society. Chen (2000) believes that ‘

Friday, November 15, 2019

Investigating The Mechanism And Impact Of Nectar Card Marketing Essay

Investigating The Mechanism And Impact Of Nectar Card Marketing Essay To explore the effectiveness of customer centric theory by the implementation of loyalty cards in retail business. To make a critical review about the operation and success of Nectar card Sainsbury in maintaining the customer relationship in current business environment. To investigate more about some practical theories used by Sainsbury for the implementation of Nectar cards in their business. To evaluate the impact of Nectar card among Sainsbury customers to point out some valuable suggestions thereby to improve the effectiveness of nectar card in business of Sainsbury. Research background In this competitive market the main factor affecting the business is the effective strategic management in the business. Information technology is the most effective factor now days. Therefore all the business organizations are to be careful in maintaining effective IT related strategies for the effective business. Sainsbury is a well established supermarket network in London. They have made a strategic approach by using the IT sector as by using the nectar card as an service to the customer where as using it as the information collector for the effective business. They mainly focus to meet customer requirements. In this proposed research I am planning to do a research on the nectar card used by the Sainsbury at Holborn, London. By using this effective strategy of management Sainsbury have achieved a wide range of customers at Holborn. As they use this card to keep an updated record of data of their customers and to keep a track of their regular customers. By this research I am focusing on the main sections on the strategic application of the information technology of the Nectar card in the business management of the Sainsbury. ORGANIZATION BACKGROUND: Sainsbury, An organization with more than 140 years old opened its first showroom in the year 1869 by Mr. John James and Mary Ann Sainsbury from the time of its establishment towards Sainsbury has very well strategic planning for the instant we can very well see that Sainsbury opened its first showroom in Drury lane, it was the one of the poorest area in the in the country England and they started to sell the high quality products at the lower rate which attracted people all over the place and from the time being the rate of success of strategic decision were very high which lead to the growth of the Sainsbury from 1 store to the 800 stores by the year 2010. The other main strategy adopted by the Sainsbury was they aim to sell to product under their own brand name and first among them was the smoked bacon. The bacon was smoked in their in store under the smoking oven. Sainsbury had a very large shortage of the workers during the First World War and they started to recruit women to wo rk in their in store and many other store roles were assigned to the women. (j-sainsbury,2009) In 1950s Sainsbury our self service stores are started in the UK much before many competitors have implemented and this had made Sainsbury a different store from others continuously the strategies adopted by the company goes at higher success rate one of the result among them was the in the year 1969 their own brand products accounted for the 50% of their turn over.(j-sainsbury,2009) GOAL OF SAINSBURY: The major o goal of the Sainsbury is by providing good quality shopping experience at the convenient price with the highest quality available in the market. Sainsbury aims at the higher customer expectations for the daily lives which makes the life of the customer easier.(j-sainsbury,2009) VALUES OF SAINSBURY: Sainsbury value for the passion for the healthy, safe, fresh and tasty foods, our focuses towards delivering great products at fair prices, a history of innovation and leadership and a strong regard for the social, ethical and environmental effects of our operation have continued to stand the test of time. (j-sainsbury,2009) Five major principles followed by the Sainsbury are: Bringing the best for the food and health. Integrity in sourcing Environment respect. Marking positive effects in the community. Making working environment a better place to work. (j-sainsbury,2009) LITERATURE REVIEW: LOYALTY CARD: Loyalty card is an another marketing strategy adopted by many business organization and loyalty card is provided by different organization and marketed by different organization in different name and some among them is the Nectar card, Club card, Reward card etc. Usually loyalty card is a plastic or paper card usually looks like credit or debit card in which the name of the card holder will be imprinted in the face of the card. Loyalty card is the usual name famous in the UK region and its name varies in different region in the world. The other side of the card typically will have a magnetic strip or a barcode so that they can be easily scanned to the system when purchasing the products. (loyalty,2008). A retail firm in the in the retail industry may issue this loyalty card towards the customers or consumers which can be then used as an identification procedure in order to find the particular customer. The loyalty gives the data of the consumer regarding demography as well as the other relevant data. It gives data such as the address as well as the number of families in the home. Each and every loyalty card issued by the retail merchandise will have customer privacy statement as well as the non- disclosure data about the customers and these data will not be disclosed between the others users of the same retailing sector. These data provided by the loyalty card can be used for the both externally as well as internally. These data can be used to analyze the data such which will be better and favorite brand for the particular customer or whether the consumer is vegetarian or not.( loyalty,2008) EPOS: Electronic point of sales: EPOS data are usually used by the retailing groups like supermarkets, hypermarkets, pharmacies, chemists, convenience stores, small independent stores, petrol bunks, cash and carry, off license as well as in pubs and restaurants. Electronic point of sales data are the much useful data to the retailer like the one which when the customer swipe the card at the till of the shop all the details like what all are the things purchased by the consumer will goes towards the marketing wing and as per the data available the marketing wing can able to analyze the customer and they can provide provides rewards and loyalty program according to the taste and nature of the consumers or customers.( loyalty,2009) NECTAR CARD: Nectar card is a loyalty card as well as a loyalty reward program mainly based in the UK region supplied with the partnership of the business giants like Sainsbury, American express and BP. The nectar card was introduced into UK in later of 2002. (nectar,2009) Nectar is maintained by the private organization named Loyalty Management Group UK and now it became the part of Group aero plan. The helpline is mainly based on the Tyne and in Mumbai. Nectar card has maintained a 5 year plan from the year 2002 and thus helped to overtake the club card issued by the Tesco and by the year 2010 Nectar card has became popular 2in the UK. (nectar,2002) Sainsbury uses the data from the nectar card by the process of EPOS. Sainsbury valuate each and every customer by the process of EPOS services provided by the nectar card. At the time of billing process Sainsbury stores each data in the database through this process they can be able to analyze what all are the products which are mostly sold in the particular day and they can analyze the trends in shopping of the consumers as well as the customers. By looking over the database of each customer they can be able to analyze the taste of the consumers like whether he or she is vegetarian or non vegetarian through this analyze they can be able to provide particular offer toward for the particular products for the customers and at the same time they can be able to provide offers for the products which are not usually used by the consumer. During each seasons for example during the month of Christmas if consumer or customer consumes wines they can be able to provide seasonal offers for the p articular products at particular time. (j-sainsbury,2003). Rationale I had been employed by the firm and have found that with the advent of loyalty cards the company is capable of promoting its sales very easily. The loyalty cards have made market analysis and exploitation of customer behavior carry with nominal expenditure very effectively than any other method. Hence being from an IT background and as learning Business Management, I thought to keep me ahead in this era of technology based business. This research will horn me with more knowledge. Hypothesis Loyalty cards are the simplest ways to analysis and understand periodical customer behavior and to promote business regionally. Methodology Don Erwin says The main reason for studying research methodology is that it provides a time-tested, proven means of providing new, reliable knowledge that accumulate the growing body of knowledge.(Ethridge,2004,p.10) The methodology of research can be explained as the systematic method to solve the research problem or the scientific method of doing the research and meeting the objectives of the research. Research methods and methodology closely related parts of the research, in which the methodology has many dimensions and method can be viewed as the part of this .This makes the methodology of a research always wider than the research method. Thus in this context researcher should well aware about the research methods as well as methodology before doing a research. (Kumar, 2008, p.5) The research can be classified on the basis of a number of factors like objectives, data used, data collection methods, the use of the research, approach of the researcher etc. most of the time a research may be the combination of more than one type. So following are the classification of some major type of research in which my research is more related to. Descriptive Vs analytical research The descriptive research mainly concentrates on the descriptive approach of stating the affairs and research problems. This make use of the main research methods like survey method, observation   and other primary data collection method in spite of the secondary data which is already available. An important characteristic of this research is that it can only describe what is happened or happening and no control over the variables of the research topic. But in the case of analytical research the researcher make use of the various information and facts which is already available for the evaluation of the research topic, so that no need to collect fresh or primary data.(Kumar, 2008, p.8) My research is planned to make use of both primary and secondary types of data so my research is more related to descriptive type research than analytical type. Theoretical Vs Empirical Research In the theoretical way of doing a research the researcher primarily selects some of the theoretical facts and information from the sources like articles, journals, books etc then the researcher further analysis the research questions on the basis of this data which is mainly the secondary data. But in the case of the empirical data the research begins with the help of secondary data but latter the researcher also make use of some of the primary data for the further analysis of evaluating the hypothesis and finding the answer to the research questions. . (Schwab,2004,p.15) In the empirical research secondary data helps to make a detailed analysis of the research topic were the primary data helps to find out key ideas and values of the topic, altogether makes the research more reliable and meaning full. Because of this strong advantage I am making use of Empirical research method in my research. Explanatory Vs predictive Research Explanatory research mainly carried out in the situation in which the researcher should find out the reason behind a particular phenomenon which is already happened and is related to the research topic. In this type of approach the researcher identifies different factors or variables and analysis this variables with the help of predicted hypothesis and objectives. In this type of research the researcher can make strong interpretations on the basis of the collected data, but in the case of predictive research the researcher is making predictions regarding the various factors with the help of the collected data. (Gratton, 2004,p.9) Since in my research there is no scope for prediction of phenomenon and also requires the interpretations of collected data my research is more explanatory. Qualitative and Quantitative Research Qualitative and Quantitative is the most important classification on the basis of the date used to carry out the research. The data is mainly classified into two, one which contains narrative explanations and interpretations called qualitative data but the other contains numerical data and its analysis called the quantitative data. The researches which uses qualitative data for proceeding the research is called qualitative research, similarly research which uses quantitative data is called quantitative research. Most of the research is the combination of the quantitative and qualitative approach called the mixed approach. In my research also in making use of both type of research so its a mixed research approach. Quantitative Research This approach concentrates more on measurement and evaluates of the quality or amount, on the factors which can be expected in terms of the quality. This is more related to the quantitative phenomenon and quantifiable data. By implementing this research type the researcher can be able to analyses the topic very precisely with the help of set of procedures and rules so that the reader can get a clear picture of the issues under consideration. (Kumar, 2008,p.10) The scope and limitations of the quantitative approaches are follows. Scope of quantitative research The quantitative research is helpful to the stake holders to evaluate the performance of the company very clearly and easily. Since the analysis is strictly based on the objectives and main points the comparisons can be easily done. Quantitative approach is easily replicate and highly reliable. The authenticity of data used in this type of research can be verified easily The authenticity of quantitative data which is used in the quantitative research analysis can be easily verified. Limitations The main limitation of Qualitative type of research is that it can be effective only with the help of quantitative research. The approach holds minimum flexibility. Highly depends on the authenticity of the numerical data used in the analysis. If the data is not reliable the whole research becomes meaningless and insignificant. Highly time consuming and expensive to perform. This type of research should be planned carefully to ensure the correct destination. Qualitative research Through this type of approach the researcher can easily evaluate and illustrate human behavior and related issues.   Qualitative research is a very important in business researches because it is vey useful in the product design and sales. Through this the user can easily evaluate the preference and habits of the people and can predict the future of the product whether it is viable or not commercially. Qualitative research mainly supported by a realistic and provable hypothesis which can be analyzed to reach the research result.(experiment-resourses,n.d.) Scope of qualitative research Qualitative research is very useful if the research topic is complex with the help of hypothesis and clear objectives. Approach helps the researcher to explore and interpret the real world experiences which is impossible in the case of quantitative analysis. Depth evaluation of the topic is possible in a detailed manner so that the research will be more useful for the readers. Procedures are flexible so that new levels of research can be established very easily. Can make maximum use of the previous researches and also can point out the ignored factors in the previous researches. Limitations Highly influenced by the personal skill of the researcher so that the quality of the research cannot be ensured with the quality data and data collection methods. Systematic comparison is difficult because of the aggregative approach of the research. Low reliability and less precise when compared to the quantitative research. Since the research is more concentrated on the personal experience , general trends opinions ,judgment etc ,this can only be effective in the qualitative method of analysis. Mathematical analysis is impossible. Data collection Methods The most important step in a research is its data collection. By which the data for the research is collected. This step is much important in a research, as proper care is to be taken for the reliability of the data collecting and towards the relevance of those data. For these collecting of data there are few methods which can be classified as primary and secondary data. The main collection methods used are secondary method which includes methods like collecting data from internet, books journals etc. but in the few cases the collection of primary data may face difficulties as it is fresh and new data collected. Primary data collection methods This method is used to collect data from the area of research directly by using various primary data collecting methods. The researcher uses various methods like questionnaires, interviews, surveys etcà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ the primary data is fully depended on the subjects and hence there is a chance of bias if the subjects are not trust worthy. In this research I am planning to do: Observation method: This is the method of data collecting by the process of observing the working environment at the area of research, in this research it is the working environment off the Sainsbury super market at Holborn, London. This collection method is done by the direct participation of the researcher. Advantages: In this method of data collection the data collected may be more reliable as the researcher has a direct personal experience in the area of research. Observation method is an effective where as an simple method by which the researcher can get a direct contact with the working environment of the area of research and can collect data effectively and easily Direct contact with the employees can be helpful for the success of the research. As they may be able to provide data much easier. Disadvantages: In few situations the information collected by the direct contact may be incomplete and may require further effort on it. The validity and reliability of the data collected by the observation method may not be confirmed. As only a proper skilled researcher can analyze the working environment of an activity effectively. As the part of collecting data in this research, I am using the observation method as I had an experience of six months in this super market and this method is mostly reliable one. Questionnaire method In this method of data collection, I am intending to prepare a collection of questions related to the research topic to find out relevant data for the research. Advantages: Questionnaire method helps to provide data according to the relevance of the research. As all the questions in the questionnaire are directly linked to the research objectives. Collection of data can be done much effectively and easily than conducting an interview. In this method of data collection it is easy to get data from a very large number of persons as the questionnaire can be supplied to them in a short period of time. Disadvantages: In this method of data collection in few situations the participants may not be ready to provide accurate data. All the questions in the questionnaire are to be answered effectively by the participant incase to do easy analysis. As there is possibility of anonymous questionnaires the participants may have a negative feel towards the questionnaire. (Cresewell,2002,p.25).   Interviewing method: This is the method by which I have to formulate a structured frame of the questions which lead me to collect the data which supports my research.   The responses towards my questions by the participants make my research much effective one. Advantages: This is a method by which the data is collected by the researcher by direct contact with the person related to the research area therefore this is much effective to collect relevant data for the research This method of data collection is an flexible one as the questions may vary according to the person. This method helps to get the primary data more easily and reliably as the interview is done with the person who can provide effective data and it is conducted by the researcher itself. Disadvantages: There may be limitations for the researcher to publish data provided by the interviewee in the interview in some situation. As the data may be much confidential related to them. This is a process which takes much time in analyzing and sorting of the data also to lead the data to the finds of the research questions I am planning to conduct a direct interview with the manager of the Sainsbury Supermarket at Holborn, London.  Ã‚   Secondary data collection methods   Secondary data collection means those data which have already be collected and published. Also can be accessible from various sources like journals, articles, books, internet etc. these data collected will   be much reliable if we take proper care in the selection of the sources we use. In this research I am intending to use various above mentioned sources which are reliable.   Advantages: The data can be easily and effectively collected in this method as the required sources are easily   accessible by the researcher through various libraries, internet etc The books which are much reliable as published and written by qualified persons makes those data more reliable and relevant. As the data collected will be already arranged or sorted by the pre-publisher the sorting of data will be easier. Disadvantages: As there are various unreliable sources it is difficult to identify the reliable one and the unreliable one. The improper updating of various websites in the internet may affect the reliability and relevance of the data. As all the data are published before there may be a tendency to copy the work done by any other person which means practicing plagiarism. Ethics in research Ethics in the research is one of the most important factors the researcher should take care of because this can create trust of the reader on the research. The ethical principles can be applied to all levels of the research like planning, evaluating, data collection conducting etc. Integrity, honesty and confidentiality are the main factors which can contribute a lot to the ethical behavior of the research. Some of the ethical standard a research should maintain is follows, Avoid the use of information which can harm environment, individual and property unnecessarily. Reliability of the information and individuals in the research should be ensured. The confidentially and privacy of the data should be preserved whenever necessary. Suitable precautions should be taken when dealing with the individuals in the research to maintain the reliability of the research. Try to avoid big economic expenses, big reward and contract for the study to avoid the falsification of information.